The eye of the future

​The Centre for Eye Research,Melbourne (CERA) is doing bionic eye research and trials as is UNSW biomedical engineering also home of UNSW Optometry

Presbyopia correction by intraocular lenses that can reshape themselves is the goal of some adaptive optics experiments, to actually produce or simulate this outcome.
Many people with neurodegenerative diseases have problems with their vision. So screening tools for earlier detection of Alzheimer’s disease will develop.
Advances in biometrics suggest that eye-scans could replacing physical tickets or serve as signs of identification.

Prototype contact lenses being developed that be  controlled by the eye’s movements,where  wearers can make the lenses zoom in or out by simply blinking could have applications to other prosthetics as well.

 

the eye of the future

Alzheimer’s disease

​Both Alzheimer’s disease and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been linked with amyloid beta Aβ proteins. 

By collecting  vitreous samples of Aβ levels from AMD patients and monitoring  changes  compared to the results from healthy individuals ,at risk individuals can be identified before the actual symptoms of sight loss occur.

​OCTA scans of healthy people versus those  scans of people with Alzheimer’s or mild cognitive impairments have been studied.
The scans of the people with Alzheimer’s revealed  a diagnostic  loss of certain small retinal blood vessels and a thinning of a specific layer of the retina.Also OCTA scans revealed that the innermost retina layer was thinner in the people with a family history of Alzheimer’s.
The retina is an extension of the brain which shares many of the same similarities, the tissue suggests that deterioration in one mirrors the other.

octa scan alzheimers

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common acquired chronic neurological disease often affecting mainly young female adults.
Demyelination causes functional loss in nerve cells. A MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan can show areas of scarring and inflammation.
A lumbar puncture (spinal tap) and electrophysiological tests can be analysed for the conduction of nerve impulses.
Symptoms include 
Loss of coordination and sensation,Hand shaking,loss of bladder control,vertigo,Clumsiness,extreme fatigue,Speech difficulties,Hand shaking.
Also tremors,tingling,vision and memory impairments.
Myelin can be repaired by the body and individuals can recover well from MS attacks. However, for some, recovery can sometimes by incomplete or symptoms can worsen over time.
Serial blood tests could track brain injury potentially detecting Alzheimer’s,MS, earlier before full manifestation of symptoms.

Machine learning

The future looks promising for advanced countries but it is also imperative to lift the usage and availability of distance or near-vision glasses as appropriate which has been shown to lift productivity in the most cost effective way in the developing world.

By studying the genetic makeup of patients with such conditions as uveitis or glaucoma ways to predict disease progression can be identified for all .

Such techniques as MRI ,angiography will evolve for high-resolution “real time” images of the visual pathways from the eye all the way back to the vision centres in the brain and will shed light on many  eye and systemic conditions.

Increasingly the eye of the future will benefit by wearables as smart contact lenses which can monitor blood-sugar levels, and technology algorithms eg machine learning from employing huge data sets of eye images used to detect diabetic retinopathy

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